2021 Czech legislative election

Czech Republic election

2021 Czech legislative election

← 2017 22 8–9 October 2021 Next →

All 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
101 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout65.39% (Increase 4.60 pp)
  First party Second party
 
Andrej Babiš v roce 2020 (cropped).jpg
Petr Fiala 2019 Praha.jpg
Leader Andrej Babiš Petr Fiala
Party ANO ODS
Alliance SPOLU
Leader since 1 August 2012 18 January 2014
Leader's seat Ústí nad Labem South Moravia
Last election 29.64%, 78 seats 22.44%, 42 seats
Seats won 72 71
Seat change Decrease 6 Increase 29
Popular vote 1,458,140 1,493,905
Percentage 27.13% 27.79%
Swing Decrease 2.51 pp Increase5.35pp

  Third party Fourth party
 
Ivan Bartoš 8 May 2021.jpg
Tomio Okamura portrét (cropped).jpg
Leader Ivan Bartoš Tomio Okamura
Party Pirates SPD
Alliance Pirates and Mayors
Leader since 2 April 2016 5 May 2015
Leader's seat Ústí nad Labem Moravia-Silesia
Last election 15.98%, 28 seats 10.64%, 22 seats
Seats won 37 20
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 2
Popular vote 839,776 513,910
Percentage 15.62% 9.56%
Swing Decrease0.36pp Decrease1.08pp

2021 Czech legislative election map.png Results of the election.

Prime Minister before election

Andrej Babiš
ANO

Prime Minister after election

Petr Fiala
ODS

Legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 8 and 9 October 2021. All 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected, with the leader of the resulting government to become the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic. Following the 2017 Czech legislative election, the country has been ruled by a minority government consisting of ANO 2011 (ANO), led by prime minister Andrej Babiš, and the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), led by interior minister Jan Hamáček, with confidence and supply support from the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) until April 2021. The largest opposition party was the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), followed by the Czech Pirate Party. Other parties in the Chamber of Deputies included SPD, TOP 09, STAN, and KDU-ČSL.

Babiš ran again as leader of ANO, and the main opposition parliamentary parties formed two electoral alliances, SPOLU and Pirates and Mayors (abbreviated to PirStan or PaS). ANO was front runner of the election, as it was polling first ahead of SPOLU and PirStan prior election.[1][2][3] The result was a surprise victory for the liberal conservative alliance SPOLU, which received the highest number of votes, while the populist ANO received the highest number of seats.[4] No opinion poll placed SPOLU in the first place prior to the vote.[5] It was the closest legislative election in the history of Czech Republic.[6]

The opposition parties won a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and agreed to form a coalition government with SPOLU leader Petr Fiala as the new prime minister.[7][8][9] Traditional left-wing parties ČSSD and KSČM failed to reach the 5% threshold to win any seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993.[10] The Pirates, which were one of the leading opposition parties, were heavily defeated due to preferential votes and won just 4 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.[11] Petr Fiala was appointed as the new Prime Minister on 28 November 2021 while rest of the new cabinet was appointed on 17 December 2021.

Background

According to the Constitution of the Czech Republic, an election to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Czech parliament, must be held every four years. The government is answerable to the Chamber of Deputies and remains in power only with the confidence of the majority of members of parliament. Article 19(1) of the constitution states that any citizen of the Czech Republic who has right to vote and is 21 years old is eligible to serve as an MP.[12]

ANO 2011 (ANO) emerged as the largest party in the 2017 legislative election and formed a minority government, which then lost a vote of confidence on 16 January 2018. The party formed a coalition government with the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), supported by the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM), which lasted until April 2021. Andrej Babiš became the new prime minister. The Civic Democratic Party (ODS) emerged as the second largest party and main opposition party, narrowly ahead of the Czech Pirate Party.[13]

2018 Senate and municipal elections

In 2018, voters elected 27 of 81 members of the Senate and approximately 61,900 members of local councils. ODS won the Senate election with 10 senators elected.[14] ANO won the municipal elections in most regional cities, with ODS finishing first in Prague and STAN in Liberec.[15] ČSSD and KSČM lost over half of their votes and seats in municipal councils.[16][17]

2019 European Parliament election

In May 2019, voters elected 21 members of the European Parliament. ANO came first, with ODS and the Pirates close behind in number of seats. As ČSSD failed to achieve more than 5 percent of votes in national elections for the first time since the mid-1990s, it did not get any seat.[18][19][20]

2020 Senate and regional elections

In October 2020, voters elected 675 members of regional assemblies in 13 regions of the nation, except Prague, which then formed regional governments. ANO won the election with 21.8% of votes but opposition parties, especially the Pirates, made gains, while allies of ANO were heavily defeated.[21][22][23] The governing parties were also heavily defeated in the Senate elections, which were won by Mayors and Independents ahead of ODS.[24]

Coalitions of political parties

Following these elections, opposition parties began negotiations about potential electoral alliances. It was speculated that two electoral blocs would be formed: a conservative bloc led by ODS, which would also include KDU-ČSL and TOP 09, with Petr Fiala as leader, and a liberal bloc composed of the Pirates and Mayors and Independents, with Ivan Bartoš as the leader.[25]

The ODS leadership agreed to form an alliance on 25 October 2020, with a memorandum to be signed two days later.[26] On 27 October 2020, Fiala, Marian Jurečka, and Markéta Adamová announced that ODS, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09 would form an electoral alliance for the next legislative election, with ODS leader Fiala as the alliance's candidate for prime minister.[27] On 11 November 2020, the parties agreed that ODS would nominate the leaders of the election lists in nine regions, KDU-ČSL in three regions, and TOP 09 in two regions.[28] The name of the alliance was announced as SPOLU, meaning "Together" in English.[29] Fiala was confirmed as the alliance's candidate for prime minister on 16 December 2020.[30]

The leadership of Mayors and Independents agreed to start negotiations on 8 October 2020.[31] The Pirates are required to ratify any alliance in a members' referendum. In a poll on 20 October 2020, 51% of Pirate members were opposed to the alliance while 43% supported it. The referendum to starting negotiations for an alliance was originally scheduled for 13 to 16 November 2020[32] but was rescheduled for 20 to 23 November 2020.[33] Among Pirate members, 695 out of 858 voted in favour of negotiations, with a turnout of 80%.[34] Ivan Bartoš was nominated to be the Pirate's election leader on 25 November 2020,[35] and was confirmed on 2 December 2020. The Pirates also offered the Green Party the possibility to join its electoral list.[36] Bartoš was confirmed as the alliance's electoral leader on 14 December 2020.[37] Pirate members voted to approve the alliance on 13 January 2021.[38]

ČSSD started to negotiate the formation of a third electoral bloc in January 2021, negotiating with the Green Party and some regional parties about the formation of a left-wing electoral alliance.[39] The Green Party stated as a condition for joining an alliance that the parties would not form a government coalition with ANO after the election.[40]

In early 2021, the Tricolour Citizens' Movement, Svobodní, the Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic, and other minor parties began negotiations about a potential alliance.[41] On 5 March 2021, these three parties confirmed the formation of a coalition, stating that they would run either in a formal electoral alliance or as a single party, depending on the new electoral law.[42] The Independence Party of the Czech Republic declared support for this coalition soon after.[43] On 23 March 2021, Tricolour leader Václav Klaus Jr. resigned from all political functions for personal reasons.[44] Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková became acting leader of the party.[45]

On 23 March 2021, a group of minor parties including the Alliance for the Future, Agrarian Democratic Party, Order of the Nation, and Democratic Green Party formed an electoral alliance, the Alliance for the Future, with Pavel Sehnal as leader.[46] The Party of Common Sense also subsequently joined the alliance.[47]

Some commentators have described the election as a "hidden referendum" on membership of the European Union (EU).[48][49][50]

Electoral system

Set of ballots for the 2021 legislative elections for the Prague voting district

During the 2017 legislative election, the 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected from 14 multi-member constituencies by open list proportional representation with an electoral threshold of 5%. It was raised to 10% for two-party political alliances, 15% for three-party alliances, and 20% for alliances of four or more parties. Seats were allocated using the D'Hondt method. Voters can give preference votes to up to four candidates on a list. Candidates who receive preferential votes from more than 5% of voters are moved to the top of their list; in cases where more than one candidate receives over 5% of the preferential votes, they are ranked in order of votes received.[51]

Although it was expected that the 2021 legislative election would take place using the same electoral system, the Constitutional Court ruled on a complaint submitted by a group of senators from Mayors and Independents, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09 that the electoral system was unproportional and favoured larger parties. It focused on the D'Hondt method, the division of the country into 14 constituencies, and the increased electoral threshold for alliances.[52] The Constitutional Court's decision, published on 3 February 2021, set the threshold for alliances at 5% and removed some provisions relating to seat allocation.[53] New provisions were put into law before the election, establishing a threshold of 5% for single parties, 8% for coalitions of two parties, and 11% for coalitions of three or more parties.[54]

Registration process

The deadline to submit candidate lists for election was 4 August 2021. As of 2 August 2021, 29 subjects had made an application to the registration bureau.[55] All of them were approved by the bureau and permitted to run.[56]

Observers

Czech Republic invited experts from Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) to observe election.[57] OSCE provided four observers.[58]

Covid-19 pandemic

COVID-19 testing site in Prague. COVID-19 affected the election with some changes required to allow quarantined and isolated people to vote.

As with the regional elections in 2020, the pandemic emergency, covered by the pandemic law,[59] allowed for the establishment of special polling stations for people in isolation or quarantine, as well as drive-in voting locations. Disinfection and respiratory protection were provided to ensure hygienic conditions in traditional polling stations. Special election dates were announced on 6 and 7 October 2021.[60]

Political parties

The table below lists political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies after the 2017 legislative election.

Name Ideology Position Leader 2017 result
Votes (%) Seats
ANO Populism Centre to centre-right Andrej Babiš 29.6%
78 / 200
ODS Liberal conservatism Centre-right to right-wing Petr Fiala 11.3%
25 / 200
Pirates Pirate politics Centre to centre-left Ivan Bartoš 10.8%
22 / 200
SPD Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Tomio Okamura 10.6%
22 / 200
KSČM Communism Left-wing to far-left Vojtěch Filip 7.8%
15 / 200
ČSSD Social democracy Centre-left Jan Hamáček 7.3%
15 / 200
KDU-ČSL Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Marian Jurečka 5.8%
10 / 200
TOP 09 Liberal conservatism Centre-right Markéta Adamová 5.3%
7 / 200
STAN Liberalism, localism Centre to centre-right Vít Rakušan 5.2%
6 / 200

Pre-election composition

Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic by political spectrum in December 2020.svg
Party Seats
ANO 2011 78
Civic Democratic Party 23
Czech Pirate Party 22
Freedom and Direct Democracy 19
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 15
Czech Social Democratic Party 14
KDU-ČSL 10
TOP 09 7
Mayors and Independents 6
Tricolour Citizens' Movement 3
Free Bloc 2
Unified 1

Competing parties

List Name Ideology Position Leader 2017 result
1 Green Party Green Politics Centre-left Magdalena Davis 1.56% (0 Seats)
2 Swiss Democracy Swiss system Centre-right Tomáš Raždík new
3 Free Bloc Nationalism Far-right Lubomír Volný didn't stand
4 Freedom and Direct Democracy Nationalism Far-right Tomio Okamura 10.64% (22 Seats)
5 Czech Social Democratic Party Social Democracy Centre-left Jan Hamáček 7.27% (15 Seats)
6 Right Bloc Anti-communism Right-wing Petr Cibulka 0% (0 Seats)
7 Alliance of National Forces Nationalism Far-right Vladimíra Vítová 0% (0 Seats)
8 TricolourSvobodníSoukromníci National Conservatism Right-wing Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková 1.56% (0 Seats)
9 Alliance for the Future Liberalism Centre-right Pavel Sehnal 0.15% (0 Seats)
10 Sources Movement Decentralization[61] none[62] no leader new
11 The Left Democratic socialism Left-wing Markéta Juřicová new
12 Přísaha Anti-corruption Centre Robert Šlachta new
13 SPOLU Liberal Conservatism Centre-right Petr Fiala 22.4% (42 Seats)
14 Pensioners 21 Pensioners' interests none Jaromír Fojtík new
15 Urza.cz Anarcho-capitalism none Martin Urza new
16 Czech Crown Monarchism Right-wing Radim Špaček supported TOP 09
17 Pirates and Mayors Liberalism Centre Ivan Bartoš 15.97% (28 Seats)
18 Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia Communism Left-wing Vojtěch Filip 7.76% (15 Seats)
19 Moravian Land Movement Regionalism Centre Ondřej Hýsek new
20 ANO 2011 Populism Centre Andrej Babiš 29.64% (78 Seats)
21 We Will Open Czechia Opposition to COVID-19 restrictions Far-right Jakub Olbert new
22 Moravané Regionalism Centre Pavel Dohnal didn't stand

MPs not standing for reelection

List of MPs who announced they would not stand for reelection in 2021
MP Seat First elected Party Note
Jiří Bláha Liberec 2017 ANO [63]
Alexander Černý Olomouc 2002 KSČM [63]
Monika Červíčková Prague 2018 (surrogate) ANO [64]
Jan Čižinský Prague 2017 KDU-ČSL [63]
Petr Dolínek Prague 2017 ČSSD [63]
Miroslav Grebeníček South Moravia 1993 KSČM [65]
Stanislav Juránek South Moravia 2017 KDU-ČSL [63]
Pavel Juříček Moravia-Silesia 2017 ANO [66]
Iva Kalátová Karlovy Vary 2019 (surrogate) ANO [67]
Václav Klaus Jr. Prague 2017 Tricolour Elected for ODS originally.[68]
Jiří Kohoutek Pardubice 2017 SPD [69]
Josef Kott Vysočina 2013 ANO [63]
Pavel Kováčik South Moravia 1996 KSČM [70]
Lenka Kozlová Central Bohemia 2017 Piráti The only Pirate MP to not seek reelection.[63]
Jana Levová Plzeň 2017 SPD [71]
Přemysl Mališ Central Bohemia 2017 ANO [72]
Eva Matyášová Hradec Králové 2017 ANO [73]
Marcela Melková Central Bohemia 2017 ANO [72]
Jiří Mihola South Moravia 2013 KDU-ČSL [63]
Ivana Nevludová Moravia-Silesia 2017 Jednotní Originally elected for SPD.[65]
Monika Oborná Vysočina 2017 ANO [63]
Petr Pávek Liberec 2017 STAN The only STAN MP to not seek reelection.[65]
Pavel Pustějovský Zlín 2017 ANO [63]
Jaroslava Puntová Ústí nad Labem 2020 (surrogate) ANO [63]
Miloslava Rutová Plzeň 2016 (surrogate) ANO [74]
Karel Schwarzenberg Prague 2010 TOP 09 [63]
Roman Sklenák South Moravia 2010 ČSSD [63]
Olga Sommerová Prague 2021 (surrogate) LES Elected on TOP 09 list.[63]
Pavel Staněk South Moravia 2017 ANO [63]
Pavel Šindelář Plzeň 2021 (surrogate) ODS [63]
Karla Šlechtová Plzeň 2017 ANO [63]
František Vácha South Bohemia 2013 TOP 09 [63]
Adam Vojtěch South Bohemia 2017 ANO [63]
Václav Votava Plzeň 2002 ČSSD [63]
Jaroslav Vymazal Vysočina 2020 (surrogate) ODS [63]
Rostislav Vyzula South Moravia 2013 ANO [63]
Jan Zahradník South Bohemia 2013 ODS [63]
Radek Zlesák Vysočina 2017 ANO [63]

Campaign

2021 Campaign.

Issues

The campaign was significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with opposition parties criticizing the government for its handling of the pandemic and emphasising the country's high death rate. Some parties also focused their campaigns around opposition to the COVID-19 restrictions. Meanwhile, the government parties defended their handling of the crisis, and some government ministers argued that the situation would have been worse if the opposition had been in government. This issue later lost prominence, with economic issues receiving more attention. Several political scientists, including Daniel Prokop, characterised the election as a referendum on Prime Minister Andrej Babiš.[75][76] During the final phase of the campaign, inflation and the increasing prices of groceries became the main issue, reflected in Spolu's campaign slogan: "The cost of Babiš."[77]

ANO 2011 and the far-right parties also focused on immigration during their campaigns, criticising multiculturalism and pledging to prevent "Muslim Europe."[78]

Party campaigns

Alliance for the Future

In March 2021, the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) formed an electoral alliance with other minor parties called Alliance for the Future (APB), led by Pavel Sehnal. Parties in the alliance included the Agrarian Democratic Party, Order of the Nation and the Democratic Party of Greens.[79] In July 2021 the Party of Common Sense joined the alliance.[80] ODA formally changed its name to Alliance for the Future to avoid the higher electoral threshold.[81]

The alliance's campaign was launched at a press conference on 16 June 2021, where Sehnal introduced APB's priorities, including support for Czech businesses and lower taxes. He also declared support for transatlantic cooperation and EU membership.[82]

ANO 2011

ANO billboard

After opinion polls in early 2021 showed ANO 2011 (ANO) falling behind the Czech Pirate Party, prime minister Andrej Babiš reacted by attacking the Pirates for their progressive stances, such as their supposed support for immigration and legalisation of drug use.[83] The party's campaign thus focused on criticism of the Pirates in early 2021.[84] On 27 June 2021 President Miloš Zeman endorsed ANO 2011, stating that he would vote for the party.[85]

In July 2021, ANO 2011 published a book, Share it, before they ban it, allegedly written by Babiš, who began promoting the book during the campaign with book signings. The book primarily boasted about Babiš record in government.[86][87] Ice cream was also given out at these sessions, in response to the campaign of Pirates and Mayors.[88][89][90]

The party officially launched its campaign on 2 September 2021. Babiš promised higher pensions and measures against illegal immigration. He also attacked the opposition alliances, stating that they wanted to destroy the Visegrád Group. Babiš also talked about the defence of Czech national interests.[91] In September 2021, ANO released an election advert for Czech television which attacked the Pirates over alleged support for immigration and links to "antifa".[92][93] His campaign used the slogan "I will fight for you until my body falls apart!"[94] The launch of the campaign was impacted by the arrival of Babiš' son Andrej Babiš Jr., who was allegedly kidnapped on his father orders leading to the 2018 Czech political crisis. Babiš Jr. confronted his father during the meeting and accused him of deceiving the nation. Babiš later stated that he would not wish any parent to go through such an experience.[95][96]

On 29 September 2021 Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán visited the Czech Republic and formally endorsed ANO 2011 at a rally in Ústí nad Labem.[97][98] Orbán praised Babiš, saying that Hungarians would be glad for a Prime Minister like Babiš. He also warned about immigration and the European Union during the rally, which was compared to a talkshow of two Prime Ministers.[99]

Babiš was named in the Pandora Papers leak around a month later.[100] According to the leak, Babiš used offshore companies to buy French Mansion in 2009.[101]

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

KSČM billboard focusing on housing availability

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) launched its campaign on 4 June 2021. Leader Vojtěch Filip said that a vote for KSČM meant certainty for the future. KSČM named its five priorities as help for children in need, better conditions for life and safety, the right to a dignified life and better environment, a higher minimum wage, and shorter working periods. Filip also stated his party's wish to leave NATO and establish better relationships with China and Russia.[102]

Czech Crown

The monarchist party Koruna Česká launched its campaign on 9 August 2021. The party supported TOP 09 in the 2017 elections. Chairman Radim Špaček described the program goals, to reform the Czech state from a republic to a parliamentary monarchy, to restore the historical lands of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and revise the legal order. Deputy Chairman Petr Krátký cited a public opinion polling indicating that almost 10% of Czech citizens, especially younger voters, are in favor of a monarchy. The party's list also includes members of other small parties, such as the Conservative Party and Morava 1918.[103]

Czech Pirate Party and Mayors and Independents

Pirates and Mayors campaign

The Czech Pirate Party and Mayors and Independents (STAN) formed the liberal electoral alliance Pirates and Mayors led by Ivan Bartoš, presenting their cooperation agreement in December 2020. Priorities in the agreement included lower taxes, better availability of health care in the regions, protection of the climate, and transparent governance. The parties also agreed to support adoption of the euro.[104] Bartoš said on 11 January that the alliance's priorities during the campaign would include reform of the debt collection system, digitalisation, environmental issues, and education.[105]

Pirates and STAN launched their campaign on 18 May 2021, with the slogan "Let's give the country back its future" (Czech: Vraťme zemi budoucnost). Bartoš and Rakušan promised to regulate debt collection, raise taxes on commercial buildings, and begin preparations to adopt the euro.[106] A major focus of the alliance's platform is digitalisation of the country.[107] In response to the 2021 South Moravia tornado, Pirates and STAN interrupted their campaign.[108]

Pirates and Mayors electoral bus.

At a press conference on 24 June 2021, Pirates and STAN launched an anti-corruption campaign, publishing a list of the 10 biggest corruption cases since 1989, primarily involving ODS. The campaign also listed the 10 biggest corruption cases involving the ruling ANO.[109] In July 2021, the alliance released a poster featuring Jakub Michálek, its candidate for Minister of Justice, trying to catch a man in a suit with a lasso, accompanied with anti-corruption slogans. The campaign attracted significant media attention but was also criticised as amateurish and populist.[110][111]

The alliance relaunched its campaign in August 2021 as a reaction to declining opinion polls. The campaign began to focus more on STAN and its leader Vít Rakušan, though Bartoš remained the alliance's electoral leader and candidate for prime minister.[112] The campaign also focused more on budgetary spending and education.[113]

The final phase of the campaign was launched on 9 September 2021. The alliance introduced an electoral bus in an attempt to replicate the success of the 2017 elections. Pirates and Mayors focused on criticism of the government for its handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and budget spending. Messages written on the bus also recalled various controversies of the government.[114]

ČSSD campaign

Czech Social Democratic Party

The Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) launched its campaign on 29 March 2021 with the slogan "We know what to do after Covid." The campaign focused on the solution of the COVID-19 crisis, opposition to privatization of hospitals, support for Kurzarbeit, and shorter working hours. The party also promised to increase taxes for banks and large companies.[115]

The final phase of campaign was launched on 22 August 2021. Party leader Jan Hamáček said that ČSSD was not dead, despite low opinion polling. Major topics of the party's campaign were higher salaries, pension reform, and just redistribution of COVID-19 expenditures. Slogans included "For a just Czech Republic" and "So that no one endangers your life security." ČSSD also expressed their intention to implement progressive taxation and a lower tax on groceries, rejected privatisation of health care, and promised more achievable housing.[116][117]

ČSSD used Minister of Labour and Social Affairs Jana Maláčová prominently in its campaign. In September, Maláčová and Matěj Stropnický, a candidate for the party in Prague, made a video called "Cool pair", in which they attacked opposition parties, accusing them of corruption and intending to privatize public companies.[118][119] Maláčová also campaigned at Metro stations giving out leaflets for the party.[120][121]

Free Bloc

Lubomír Volný campaigning in Brno.

The Free Bloc launched it campaign on 28 August 2021 with a meeting on Letná. Led by MP Lubomír Volný, it focused mainly on opposition to COVID-19 restrictions. Other prominent figures in their campaign were Jana Bobošíková and Hana Lipovská.[122] The Free Bloc held electoral meetings at markets, with Volný travelling around the Czech Republic in a bus called "Volňásek".[123] The campaign concluded with a meeting in Krupka on 6 October 2021.[124]

SPD billboard

Freedom and Direct Democracy

Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) launched its campaign on 15 July 2021 with a meeting on Letná.[125] SPD stated that the price for their participation in post-election coalition discussions would be a referendum law, and to hold a referendum on membership of the EU and NATO.[126][127] Other issues in the party's campaign included opposition to COVID-19 restrictions and mandatory vaccination. SPD used an election truck called "espéďák" to travel around the country, and attempted to attract potential voters to meetings by holding fairs with cheap food.[128][129]

Green Party

The Green Party launched its campaign on 29 June 2021, with the slogan "Lets Give Green to Women", focused on feminist issues and environmentalism. Besides green, the party used pink in its campaign.[130] Magdalena Davis was announced as the party's electoral leader,[131] and a large number of their candidates were women. Davis described the predominance of men in politics as a medieval custom.[132]

The final phase of the party's campaign was launched on 31 August 2021 in Brno, at the Brno astronomical clock. The Greens described it as a phallic, masculine symbol, and covered it with various images of female potential. Participants in the meeting held signs with slogans such as "We love modern schools" and "We love fathers on parental leave". Another key issue was the climate crisis, with the party proposing higher penalties for environmental crimes.[133]

People FOR

The People FOR political movement, led by political activist Mikuláš Minář, was launched on 3 December 2020, and started gathering the 500,000 signatures required for participation in the elections. Minář said that the movement does not want to be another 5% party.[134] On 24 March 2021, Minář announced the end of the movement due to low interest from voters, having collected only 39,251 signatures.[135]

Přísaha

Přísaha poster saying: "People who want a just Czechia live here."

Robert Šlachta, the former Director of the police unit against organized crime, formed the anti-corruption party Přísaha before the election. He launched the campaign at a meeting on 28 January 2021. Šlachta stated that he did not believe it was the right time to adopt the euro and was opposed to migrant quotas.[136]

The final phase of the campaign was launched on 25 August 2021. Přísaha introduced its regional leaders and program, under the slogan "Let's go to them!" The main campaign topic was fighting corruption and clientelism. Šlachta also stated that he wanted to make courts faster and fight for Czech identity, rejecting the euro and migration quotas. He also pledged to investigate all state contracts concluded under the state of emergency.[137] Šlachta stated that Přísaha had crowdfunded 13.8 million CZK for the campaign, and calculated that the campaign would cost around 15 million CZK.[138]

The party hovered around the 5% electoral threshold in polling between May and the election.[139][140] In September 2021, Přísaha's support in opinion polls gradually declined, which was blamed on the launch of the ANO campaign.[141] Šlachta stated before voting that he believed the party would reach his goal of surpassing the 5% threshold.[142]

SPOLU

SPOLU poster with leader Petr Fiala

Three centre-right parties, the Civic Democratic Party, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09, formed an electoral alliance called SPOLU. Led by Petr Fiala, the alliance launched its campaign on 9 December 2020, promising to reform tax, the social and pension system, and healthcare. Its proposals included a minimum pension, a simplification of social benefits, support for education, and better use of EU funds as well as a focus on climate change. It opposes leaving the EU and supports membership of NATO. TOP 09 leader Markéta Adamová described the alliance as a centre-right liberal conservative political force.[143]

Billboards of running parties

SPOLU launched its campaign on 19 May 2021 in Brno.[144] The campaign's slogan was "We will bring the Czech Republic together." Fiala said that SPOLU wants an "economically capable and educated Czechia".[145][144] SPOLU planned to use Dominik Feri as the face of an Instagram campaign targeting young voters entitled "I have a voice". In May 2021, Feri resigned from his political posts after being accused of sexual assault and rape by eight women, and the campaign was withdrawn.[146][147] In response to the 2021 South Moravia tornado, SPOLU interrupted its campaign in South Moravia and donated 1.5 million CZK to help people in the affected areas.[148]

Billboards used by SPOLU

From August, SPOLU's campaign featured a bus, known as the "positive bus", to be used for its candidates' personal campaigns. SPOLU also screened the film Women on the Run at its campaign meetings, and featured stand-up comedians including Petr Čtvrtníček in electoral adverts.[149][150] Fiala became more active on social media and travelled around the Czech Republic as part of a personal campaign.[151] In late August 2021, SPOLU used billboards featuring the leaders of ANO, KSČM, and SPD with the word "Threat", which was often juxtaposed with a billboard featuring the leaders of SPOLU with the words "Change you can trust."[152] On 4 September 2021, SPOLU reacted to the launch of ANO's campaign by launching a parody meme generator inspired by the ANO campaign and its slogan "Until my body falls apart!".[153] On 3 September 2021, SPOLU were endorsed by Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz, who sent a letter to Fiala wishing the alliance electoral success.[154]

SPOLU launched the final phase of their campaign on 20 September 2021 with a meeting inspired by the United States presidential campaigns.[155] In a speech, Fiala criticised Andrej Babiš' Cabinet for populism and warned against extremists. Fiala pledged that SPOLU would reduce the public debt without increasing taxes, guarantee the pro-Western orientation of the country, and digitalise public administration. He also said he wanted to solve the housing crisis. The meeting was held under the slogans "It is about everything now" and "Let's start change."[156] Around this time, prominent representatives of SPOLU visited the regions to meet with citizens.[157]

Following the television debates, SPOLU used the line "The cost of Babiš" to attack the government over inflation and the rising prices of energy and groceries. The term was first used by Fiala during a debate on Prima CNN News, before becoming a part of the alliance's billboard campaign and spreading among ODS supporters.[158][159] Fiala himself used the term repeatedly during debates.[160]

In the last polls before the election, SPOLU were polling second behind ANO. Commentators noted that the gap between ANO and SPOLU was narrowing, but none predicted that SPOLU would pull ahead.[161][1]

Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci

Svobodní campaign

The Tricolour Citizens' Movement, Svobodní, and Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic formed an electoral alliance called Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci (TSS), led by Tricolour leader Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková.[162] Václav Klaus Jr. was originally meant to be the electoral leader, but he quit politics soon after formation of the alliance.[163][164]

TSS launched its campaign on 17 June 2021 with the slogan "We have a right to live". Their campaign focused on traditional values and opposition to COVID-19 restrictions. Majerová Zahradníková targeted right-wing Eurosceptic voters,[165] and also wanted to use former Czech President Václav Klaus during the campaign.[166] Majerová Zahradníková stated during the campaign that TSS rejected the lockdown, Green New Deal, and grocery quotas. During September 2021 she also campaigned on the issue of rising prices.[167] TSS aimed to win 7% of votes.[168]

During final phase of the campaign, TSS focused on Spolu voters, distributing leaflets warning of a new Opposition agreement.[169] TSS also attacked Spolu for being too Green and too pro-Europe. The party warned of "Covid totalitarianism" while attacking COVID-19 restrictions, rejecting a new lockdown, school closures, or "segregation of the non-vaccinated".[170] TSS argued that it was the only "true authentic right" on the Czech political scene. A few hours prior to the election it was endorsed by former Czech president Václav Klaus.[171]

Urza.cz voting ballot for Liberec region.

Urza.cz

Urza.cz is an anarcho-capitalist party led by Martin Urza. Its campaign began gathering signatures in April 2021.[172] The party was registered in July 2021.[173] Urza was campaigning to promote his beliefs, rather than attract votes.[174] The party promised that its MPs would resign if elected, as it did not believe that anyone should govern by force.[175]

We Will Open Czechia

The Chcípl pes (English: The Dog Croaked) initiative was created in opposition to COVID-19 restrictions. Its members decided to form a political party called "We Will Open Czechia". Its campaign was focused against COVID-19 restrictions and included various protests. The party also called on pub owners to open their businesses despite government orders.[176][177] In April 2021 the party sent a mobile barber shop to Prague, where the public could get haircuts or buy beer. It was also used as a petition stand. The barber shop later moved from Prague to other locations around the country, finishing its journey in Ostrava.[178] In August 2021, the leaders of the party called for a new Prague defenestration, saying that "people should do anything required to overthrow criminal deputies."[179]

Independent initiatives

Million Moments for Democracy

Million Moments for Democracy led a campaign against Andrej Babiš and ANO 2011, attempting to persuade voters to support the opposition alliances Spolu or Pirates and Mayors. Members of the movement talked to people in the streets and gave them leaflets in order to change their minds vote for one of major opposition alliances. The campaign also included a messenger app called "I vote change", which aimed to persuade people through gifs and various questions that they should vote for Spolu or Pirates and Mayors.[180] Leader Benjamin Roll denied that the organisation's activities were a real election campaign, insisting that it was aiming to inform people.[181] The group's activities attracted the attention of the Office for the Supervision of the Management of Political Parties and Political Movements, which launched an investigation into possible election law violations, as the organisation had not registered as an organisation participating in the campaign.[182]

Campaign finances

Office for the Supervision of the Management of Political Parties and Political Movements
Party Money raised Services cost Money Spent Debt Total Spent Source
SPOLU 18,859,722 CZK 3,446,676 CZK 89,773,505.08 CZK 0 CZK 93,220,181.08 CZK [183]
ANO 2011 1,065,000 CZK 60,000 CZK 87,618,996.62 CZK 0 CZK 87,678,996.62 CZK [184]
Pirates and Mayors 20,396,221 CZK 1,857,516.66 CZK 81,337,980.42 CZK 0 CZK 83,195,497.08 CZK [185]
Freedom and Direct Democracy 3,141,861.99 CZK 1,358,038 CZ 75,939,166.10 CZK 5,000,000 CZK 77,297,204.10 CZK [186]
Přísaha 12,244,707 CZK 14,238,221.12 CZK 43,820,819.80 CZK 0 CZK 58,059,040.92 CZK [187]
Czech Social Democratic Party 2,546,420 CZK 1,593,742.50 CZK 54,380,892.21 CZK 0 CZK 55,974,634.71 CZK [188]
Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci 20,705,726.88 CZK 5,564,966 CZK 31,172,191.62 CZK 0 CZK 36,737,157.62 CZK [189]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 694,051 CZK 1,075,624 CZK 32,363,258,74 CZK 0 CZK 33,438,882.74 CZK [190]
Alliance for the Future 1,742,000 CZK 1,593,400 CZK 14,363,179.49 CZK 0 CZK 15,956,579.49 CZK [191]
Free Bloc 245,383.99 CZK 1,130,051 CZK 4,457,980.03 CZK 0 CZK 5,588,031.03 CZK [192]
Czech Crown 1,261,558 CZK 1,036,215 CZK 3,285,740.98 CZK 20,070 CZK 4,321,955.98 CZK [193]
Svobodní 2,397,275.93 CZK 503,200 CZK 3,141,005.48 CZK 0 CZK 3,644,205.48 CZK [194]
Green Party 2,629,918.54 CZK 58,723.55 CZK 2,327,904.13 CZK 0 CZK 2,386,627.68 CZK [195]
Swiss Democracy 1,952,494.66 CZK 0 CZK 1,901,264.69 CZK 0 CZK 1,901,264.69 CZK [196]
Alliance of National Forces 307,578.30 CZK 273,700 CZK 581,278.30 CZK 0 CZK 854,978.30 CZK [197]
We Will Open Czechia 851,513 CZK 0 CZK 848,312.50 CZK 0 CZK 848,312.50 CZK [198]
Moravané 509,457.80 CZK 13,000 CZK 513,001.89 CZK 0 CZK 526,001.89 CZK [199]
Party of Common Sense 305,300 CZK 29,000 CZK 330,034.90 CZK 0 CZK 359,034.90 CZK [200]
The Left 233,133 CZK 0 CZK 232,744.29 CZK 0 CZK 232,744.29 CZK [201]
Sources Movement 98,000 CZK 4,000 CZK 161,054.65 CZK 0 CZK 165,054.65 CZK [202]
National Democracy 141,461.07 CZK 25,400 CZK 25,400 CZK 0 CZK 50,800 CZK [203]

Endorsements

ANO 2011

Individuals

Czech Social Democratic Party

Parties

  • Patriots of Olomouc Region[206]

Individuals

Pirates and Mayors

Parties

Individuals

SPOLU

Parties

Individuals

Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci

Parties

Individuals

Debates

2021 Czech legislative election debates
Date Organisers
 P  Present   S  Surrogate   NI  Not invited  
ANO SPOLU PirStan SPD KSČM ČSSD P TSS Z
1 July 2021 CNN Prima News[216] NI NI NI NI S
Stanislav Grospič
S
Jana Maláčová
P
Robert Šlachta
P
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
NI
S
Radek Vondráček
S
Martin Kupka
S
Jan Farský
P
Tomio Okamura
NI NI NI NI NI
18 August - 29 September 2021 Denik.cz[217] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
P
Ivan Bartoš
NI NI NI NI NI NI
19 August 2021 CNN Prima News[218] NI NI NI NI P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
P
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
NI
S
Karel Havlíček
S
Marian Jurečka
S
Vít Rakušan
P
Tomio Okamura
NI NI NI NI NI
1 September 2021 CNN Prima News[219] P
Andrej Babiš
S
Marian Jurečka
P
Ivan Bartoš
NI NI P
Jan Hamáček
NI NI NI
8 September 2021 CNN Prima News[220] NI NI NI S
Radim Fiala
S
Jiří Dolejš
NI P
Robert Šlachta
S
Petr Bajer
NI
22 September 2021 CNN Prima News[221] S
Radek Vondráček
NI NI P
Tomio Okamura
S
Zdeněk Ondráček
P
Jan Hamáček
NI NI NI
26 September 2021 Prima[222] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
S
Vít Rakušan
P
Tomio Okamura
P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
P
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
NI
29 September 2021 CNN Prima News[223] NI S
Jana Černochová
S
Jan Lipavský
NI NI NI P
Robert Šlachta
S
Libor Vondráček
NI
30 September 2021 Televize Seznam[224] S
Alena Schillerová
S
Marian Jurečka
P
Ivan Bartoš
P
Tomio Okamura
S
Stanislav Grospič
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
S
Libor Vondráček
P
Magdalena Davis
3 October 2021 Prima[225] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
P
Ivan Bartoš
P
Tomio Okamura
NI NI NI NI NI
4 October 2021 iDnes[226] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
P
Ivan Bartoš
P
Tomio Okamura
P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
'NI 'NI
6 October 2021 CNN Prima News[227] S
Alena Schillerová
S
Zbyněk Stanjura
S
Věslav Michalík
S
Jan Hrnčíř
S
Miloslava Vostrá
S
Jana Maláčová
S
Pavel Žeřábek
S
Libor Vondráček
NI
6 October 2021 Česká televize[228] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
S
Vít Rakušan
P
Tomio Okamura
P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
P
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
NI
8 October 2021 Český Rozhlas[229] P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
S
Vít Rakušan
P
Tomio Okamura
P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
P
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
'NI
7 October 2021 Nova[230] NI NI NI P
Tomio Okamura
P
Vojtěch Filip
P
Jan Hamáček
P
Robert Šlachta
NI NI
P
Andrej Babiš
P
Petr Fiala
P
Ivan Bartoš
NI NI NI NI NI NI
Candidate viewed as "most convincing" in each debate
Debate Poll/Survey ANO SPOLU PirStan SPD KSČM ČSSD P TSS Z
1 September 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[231] Andrej Babiš
30.8
Marian Jurečka
13.8
Ivan Bartoš
45.0
NI NI Jan Hamáček
10.4
NI NI NI
8 September 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[232] NI NI NI Radim Fiala
10.8
Jiří Dolejš
14.2
NI Robert Šlachta
44.4
Petr Bajer
30.6
NI
22 September 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[233] Radek Vondráček
7.2
NI NI Tomio Okamura
46.2
Zdeněk Ondráček
2.8
Jan Hamáček
43.9
NI NI NI
26 September 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[234] Andrej Babiš
11.6
Petr Fiala
31.8
Vít Rakušan
33.1
Tomio Okamura
5.9
Vojtěch Filip
1.0
Jan Hamáček
3.6
Robert Šlachta
4.9
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
8.1
NI
18 August - 29 September 2021
Denik.cz
Denik.cz[235] Andrej Babiš
25
Petr Fiala
39
Ivan Bartoš
32
NI NI NI NI NI NI
29 September 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[236] NI Jana Černochová
22.1
Jan Lipavský
13.5
NI NI NI Robert Šlachta
19.0
Libor Vondráček
45.4
NI
3 October 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[237] Andrej Babiš
34.4
Petr Fiala
35.4
Ivan Bartoš
19.8
Tomio Okamura
10.4
NI NI NI NI NI
4 October 2021
iDnes
iDnes[226] Andrej Babiš
15
Petr Fiala
38
Ivan Bartoš
26
Tomio Okamura
7
Vojtěch Filip
3
Jan Hamáček
6
Robert Šlachta
5
'NI 'NI
6 October 2021
CNN Prima News
Prima News[237] NI NI NI Jan Hrnčíř
8.3
NI Jana Maláčová
35.8
Pavel Řežábek
5.0
Libor Vondráček
51.0
NI
Alena Schillerová
36.4
Zbyněk Stanjura
58.0
Věslav Michalik
3.5
NI Miloslava Vostrá
2.0
NI NI NI NI

Opinion polls

Results

Results of the election
Czechia Chamber of Deputies 2021.svg
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Spolu1,493,90527.79+5.3671+29
ANO 20111,458,14027.13–2.5172–6
Pirates and Mayors839,77615.62–0.3637+9
Freedom and Direct Democracy513,9109.56–1.0820–2
Přísaha251,5624.68New0New
Czech Social Democratic Party250,3974.66–2.620–15
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia193,8173.61–4.160–15
TricolourSvobodníSoukromníci148,4632.76+1.2000
Free Bloc71,5871.33New0New
Green Party53,3430.99–0.4700
We Will Open Czechia21,8040.41New0New
Swiss Democracy16,8230.31New0New
Moravané14,2850.27New0New
Alliance for the Future11,5310.21–0.1100
Koruna Česká8,6350.16New0New
Sources Movement8,5990.16New0New
Urza.cz6,7750.13New0New
Alliance of National Forces5,1670.10+0.0900
Pensioners 213,6980.07New0New
Moravian Land Movement1,6480.03New0New
The Left6390.01New0New
Right Bloc5860.01+0.0000
Total5,375,090100.002000
Valid votes5,375,09099.32
Invalid/blank votes36,7940.68
Total votes5,411,884100.00
Registered voters/turnout8,275,75265.39
Source: Volby (results), E15 (seats)

Distribution of seats for individual parties

2021 Czech general election - Parties.svg

Results by parties[238][239]
PS PČR 2021 strany.svg
Party Seats +/–
ANO 2011 72 –6
Civic Democratic Party 34 +9
Mayors and Independents 33 +27
KDU-ČSL 23 +13
Freedom and Direct Democracy 20 –2
TOP 09 14 +7
Czech Pirate Party 4 –18

MPs by party membership

Results by parties
Party Seats +/–
ANO 2011 63 0
Civic Democratic Party 33 +10
Mayors and Independents 31 +25
Freedom and Direct Democracy 20 –2
KDU-ČSL 19 +9
Independents 15 -5
TOP 09 13 +7
Czech Pirate Party 4 –18
Mayors for the Liberec Region 1 +1
Non-partisans 1 +1

Results by region

Winning party by region


% of votes
Region SPOLU ANO PirStan SPD Přísaha ČSSD KSČM Others Turnout
Prague 40.0 17.5 22.6 4.6 3.4 4.0 2.1 5.8 70.2
Central Bohemia 28.7 24.9 19.5 7.8 4.6 4.6 3.5 6.4 68.0
South Bohemia 29.1 26.7 13.5 9.0 4.5 5.5 4.5 7.2 66.3
Plzeň 26.6 29.0 13.9 10.0 4.7 5.0 4.1 6.7 64.7
Karlovy Vary 20.2 33.1 14.2 12.8 4.9 3.8 3.4 7.6 57.1
Ústí nad Labem 19.8 35.6 14.0 11.9 4.4 3.2 3.9 7.2 57.7
Liberec 22.8 26.9 21.4 11.0 4.3 3.5 3.0 7.1 64.6
Hradec Králové 28.6 27.0 15.1 9.1 4.7 4.9 3.4 7.2 67.9
Pardubice 28.5 26.8 14.1 9.4 5.0 5.1 3.8 7.3 67.9
Vysočina 28.0 26.7 13.5 8.9 5.2 6.7 4.7 6.3 68.9
South Moravia 30.0 25.4 14.2 9.4 6.0 4.4 3.7 6.9 66.4
Olomouc 24.5 29.8 12.4 12.2 4.7 4.5 4.0 7.9 64.7
Zlín 27.8 27.0 13.4 11.4 4.2 4.9 3.3 8.0 67.4
Moravia-Silesia 20.6 33.7 11.1 12.8 4.9 5.4 4.0 7.5 60.6
Czech Republic 27.8 27.1 15.6 9.6 4.7 4.7 3.6 6.9 65.4
Source:[240]
Seats with coalitions
Region ANO SPOLU PirStan SPD All
Prague 5 11 6 1 23
Central Bohemia 8 10 6 2 26
South Bohemia 5 5 2 1 13
Plzeň 4 4 2 1 11
Karlovy Vary 2 1 1 1 5
Ústí nad Labem 7 3 2 2 14
Liberec 3 2 2 1 8
Hradec Králové 4 4 2 1 11
Pardubice 3 4 2 1 10
Vysočina 4 4 1 1 10
South Moravia 8 9 4 2 23
Olomouc 5 4 2 1 12
Zlín 4 4 2 2 12
Moravia-Silesia 10 6 3 3 22
Czech Republic 72 71 37 20 200
Seats with single parties
Kraj ANO ODS STAN KDU-ČSL SPD TOP 09 Piráti All
Prague 5 6 4 2 1 3 2 23
Central Bohemia 8 6 5 1 2 3 1 26
South Bohemia 5 2 2 2 1 1 N/A 13
Plzeň 4 2 2 N/A 1 2 N/A 11
Karlovy Vary 2 1 1 N/A 1 N/A N/A 5
Ústí nad Labem 7 2 1 N/A 2 1 1 14
Liberec 3 2 2 N/A 1 N/A N/A 8
Hradec Králové 4 2 2 1 1 1 N/A 11
Pardubice 3 1 2 2 1 1 N/A 10
Vysočina 4 1 1 2 1 1 N/A 10
South Moravia 8 4 4 4 2 1 N/A 23
Olomouc 5 1 2 3 1 N/A N/A 12
Zlín 4 1 2 3 2 N/A N/A 12
Moravia-Silesia 10 3 3 3 3 N/A N/A 22
Czech Republic 72 34 33 23 20 14 4 200

Results by district

  • Results of the election by districts.

    Results of the election by districts.

  • SPOLU

    SPOLU

  • ANO

    ANO

  • PirStan

    PirStan

  • SPD

    SPD

  • Přísaha

    Přísaha

  • ČSSD

    ČSSD

  • KSČM

    KSČM

  • Turnout

    Turnout

  • Turnout by district compared with national turnout.

    Turnout by district compared with national turnout.

Voters abroad

2021 Czech legislative election results by country.
Results
Party Votes %
Pirates and Mayors 6,654 50.47%
SPOLU 4,517 34.26%
ANO 2011 659 4.99%
Freedom and Direct Democracy 289 2.19%
Green Party 245 1.86%
Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci 212 1.61%
Přísaha 211 1.60%
Czech Social Democratic Party 201 1.53%
Free Bloc 68 0.52%
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 50 0.38%
Swiss Democracy 19 0.14%
Czech Crown 17 0.13%
We Will Open Czechia 11 0.08%
Alliance of National Forces 9 0.07%
Sources Movement 9 0.07%
Alliance for the Future 7 0.05%
Urza.cz 6 0.05%
Source: [241]

Voter demographics

Voter demographics by PAQ Research
Social group SPOLU ANO PirStan SPD Přísaha ČSSD KSČM TSS Free Bloc Greens Others
Total Vote 27.8 27.1 15.6 9.6 4.7 4.7 3.6 2.8 1.3 1.0 2.0
Age
18-34 31 13 33 9 3 3 1 3 1 1 2
35-44 34 15 21 10 6 3 2 4 1 1 2
45-54 31 21 12 13 7 6 2 3 1 2 1
55-64 26 32 7 12 7 4 3 4 2 1 2
65+ 18 47 6 7 3 7 8 2 1 0 2
Education
Basic 22 30 17 11 4 3 6 1 0 1 5
High without Matura 17 38 7 16 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
High with Matura 29 25 17 8 4 5 4 3 1 1 3
University 40 16 22 4 4 4 2 4 1 2 1
Education and Age
Without Matura 18-34 25 12 26 17 6 5 1 3 1 0 4
With Matura 35-54 22 24 12 21 7 4 5 4 1 2 1
Without Matura 55+ 14 49 4 12 4 5 7 3 2 0 3
With Matura 18-34 34 13 36 6 0 2 1 4 1 2 2
With Matura 35-54 38 15 19 7 7 5 2 4 1 1 2
With Matura 55+ 27 35 9 6 4 7 6 3 0 1 2
Gender and Age
Women 18-34 25 12 26 17 6 5 1 3 1 0 4
Women 35-54 22 24 12 21 7 4 5 4 1 2 1
Women 55+ 14 49 4 12 4 5 7 3 2 0 3
Men 18-34 34 13 36 6 0 2 1 4 1 2 2
Men 35-54 38 15 19 7 7 5 2 4 1 1 2
Men 55+ 27 35 9 6 4 7 6 3 0 1 2
Working Status
Employed 31 19 18 11 6 5 3 3 1 1 2
Self-employed 39 14 19 11 3 3 1 5 1 1 2
Students 34 11 40 4 2 1 1 3 1 2 3
Parental Leave 29 14 26 13 4 5 2 3 2 1 2
Pensioners 17 47 6 8 4 6 7 2 1 0 3
Unemployed 21 29 20 11 4 6 2 5 0 2 0
Others 23 20 17 17 4 1 7 2 6 0 4
Working Status and Income
Unemployed in Poverty 24 22 18 14 5 5 3 5 1 1 2
Employed with income below median 30 16 20 13 6 5 2 4 2 1 2
Employed with income over median 36 20 18 9 6 5 2 3 1 1 2
Pensioners 17 47 6 8 4 6 7 2 1 0 3
Others 30 12 29 12 3 1 2 4 1 2 4
Vaccination and Age
Vaccinated 18-34 36 13 36 4 3 1 1 3 0 1 3
Vaccinated 35-54 38 20 16 8 5 5 2 2 0 1 1
Vaccinated 55+ 22 44 8 4 4 6 6 2 0 0 4
Unvaccinated 18-34 22 7 32 17 4 4 2 6 4 0 2
Unvaccinated 35-54 24 10 19 16 6 3 3 9 5 3 3
Unvaccinated 55+ 18 25 3 22 3 5 5 5 10 1 5
Source:[242]
Voter demographics by STEM/Mark
Social group SPOLU ANO PirStan SPD Přísaha ČSSD KSČM TSS Others
Total Vote 27.8 27.1 15.6 9.6 4.7 4.7 3.6 2.8 4.3
Gender
Men 24 27 18 12 4 5 4 4 2
Women 25 29 18 8 5 5 3 2 5
Age
18-29 34 10 34 7 2 3 2 3 3
30-44 25 17 25 11 5 4 2 5 7
45-59 29 20 14 17 5 3 3 5 3
60+ 19 44 10 7 5 7 6 1 2
Education
Without Matura 17 35 11 15 4 4 6 3 3
With Matura 27 25 22 7 4 5 2 3 4
University 34 17 22 6 5 7 3 2 3
By the size of village/town
999 and less 18 31 17 8 5 7 6 2 6
1,000-4,999 23 30 20 10 3 4 4 4 2
5,000-19,999 27 24 15 9 7 7 3 3 4
20,000-99,999 23 27 19 11 4 6 4 4 3
100,000 and more 31 25 18 11 4 2 2 3 3
Working Status
Employed 25 19 21 14 5 4 2 5 4
Self-employed 47 17 19 6 3 0 2 2 5
Students 38 9 38 1 2 5 0 3 4
Pensioners 17 45 9 6 5 7 7 1 2
Unemployed/House 21 22 25 17 2 3 3 2 6
Source:[243]
Voter demographics by STEM
Social group SPOLU ANO PirStan SPD Přísaha ČSSD KSČM
Total Vote 27.8 27.1 15.6 9.6 4.7 4.7 3.6
By the size of village/town
1,000 and less 24.5 29.3 13.3 10.8 5.3 5.4 4.9
1,000 - 1,999 26.4 28.3 14 10.4 5.1 4.6 4
2,000 - 4,999 26.4 28.5 13.9 10.5 4.8 4.7 3.9
5,000 - 19,999 26.3 28.5 14.7 10.1 4.9 4.9 3.7
20,000 - 49,999 24.3 30 14.1 11 4.6 4.9 3.8
50,000 - 89,999 21.7 33 12.7 11.7 4.8 5.2 3.8
90,000 and more 29.4 25.9 17.8 8.4 4.4 4.1 3
Source:[244]

MPs with highest number of preferential votes

Number MP Party Region Votes
1. Vít Rakušan STAN Central Bohemia 59,792 (43.47%)
2. Markéta Pekarová Adamová TOP 09 Prague 49,074 (19.54%)
3. Petr Fiala ODS South Moravia 38,555 (20.56%)
4. Andrej Babiš ANO 2011 Ústí nad Labem 38,277 (28.49%)
5. Jana Černochová ODS Prague 35,583 (14.17%)
6. Olga Richterová Piráti Prague 32,888 (23.14%)
7. Pavel Žáček ODS Prague 31,347 (12.48%)
8. Martin Kupka ODS Central Bohemia 30,286 (14.91%)
9. Bohuslav Svoboda ODS Prague 29,033 (11.56%)
10. Ondřej Lochman STAN Central Bohemia 27,656 (20.10%)
11. Ondřej Kolář TOP 09 Prague 27,259 (10.85%)
12. Jan Lacina STAN Prague 26,117 (18.37%)
13. Věra Kovářová STAN Central Bohemia 25,367 (18.44%)
14. Hayato Okamura KDU-ČSL Prague 24,426 (9.72%)
15. Marek Benda ODS Prague 23,164 (9.22%)
16. Alena Schillerová ANO 2011 South Moravia 22,968 (14.50%)
17. Jan Skopeček ODS Central Bohemia 22,950 (11.30%)
18. Karel Havlíček ANO 2011 Central Bohemia 22,592 (12.82%)
19. Vladimír Balaš STAN Prague 21,241 (14.94%)
20. Barbora Urbanová STAN Central Bohemia 19,969 (14.51%)
Source:[245]

MPs who lost their seat

164 incumbents stand in election but only 98 of them were reelected.[246]

Party Name Region Year became MP Note
ANO 2011 Margita Balaštíková Zlín 2013 She later became MP once again when Radim Holiš resigned on his seat.[247]
Irena Blažková Olomouc 2020 (surrogate) [248]
Andrea Brzobohatá Central Bohemia [72]
Josef Hájek Moravia-Silesia 2013
Adam Kalous Olomouc 2017
Barbora Kořanová Plzeň [249]
Jaroslav Kytýr Pardubice 2017
Milan Pour Central Bohemia [72]
Pavel Plzák Hradec Králové 2013 [73]
Věra Procházková Karlovy Vary 2017
Jan Řehounek Pardubice 2017
Miroslav Samaš Central Bohemia [72]
Civic Democratic Party Libor Hoppe South Moravia 2021 (surrogate) [250]
Jaroslav Martinů 2010 Pardubice [251]
Piráti Dana Balcarová Prague 2017 [252]
Lukáš Bartoň Plzeň 2017 [252]
Lukáš Černohorský Moravia-Silesia 2017 [252]
František Elfmark Zlín 2017 [252]
Mikuláš Ferjenčík Pardubice 2017 [252]
Radek Holomčík South Moravia 2017 [252]
Martin Jiránek Hradec Králové 2017 [252]
Lukáš Kolářík South Bohemia 2017 [252]
František Kopřiva Central Bohemia 2017 [252]
Jan Lipavský Central Bohemia 2017 [252]
Tomáš Martínek Liberec 2017 [252]
František Navrkal Ústí nad Labem 2019 (surrogate) [252]
Vojtěch Pikal Olomouc 2017 Deputy Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies.[252]
Ondřej Polanský Moravia-Silesia 2017 [252]
Jan Pošvář Vysočina 2017 [252]
Ondřej Profant Prague 2017 [252]
Petr Třešňák Karlovy Vary 2017 [252]
Tomáš Vymazal South Moravia 2017 [252]
SPD Jaroslav Holík Karlovy Vary 2017 [253]
Zdeněk Podal Hradec Králové 2017 [73]
Miloslav Rozner South Bohemia 2017 [253]
Josef Nerušil Prague 2017 [253]
KSČM Hana Aulická Jírovcová Ústí nad Labem 2013
Jiří Dolejš Prague 2002 [254]
Vojtěch Filip South Bohemia 2002 Leader of the party.
Stanislav Grospič Central Bohemia 2002
Leo Luzar Moravia-Silesia 2014
Květa Matušovská Pardubice 2010
Zdeněk Ondráček Hradec Králové 2013
Daniel Pawlas Moravia-Silesia 2017
Marie Pěnčíková Zlín 2018 (surrogate)
Ivo Pojezný South Moravia 2013
Jiří Valenta Plzeň 2013
Miloslava Vostrá Central Bohemia 2013
ČSSD Jiří Běhounek Vysočina 2013
Jan Birke Hradec Králové 2013
Jan Chvojka Pardubice 2010
Jan Hamáček Central Bohemia 2006 Leader of the party.
Tomáš Hanzel Moravia-Silesia 2017
Alena Gajdůšková Zlín 2017
Roman Onderka South Moravia 2017
Lukáš Vágner South Moravia 2021 (surrogate)
Kateřina Valachová South Bohemia 2017
Ondřej Veselý South Bohemia 2010
Lubomír Zaorálek Moravia-Silesia 1996
Tricolour Tereza Hyťhová Ústí nad Labem 2017 Originally elected for the Freedom and Direct Democracy.[255]
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková Olomouc 2017 Originally elected for the Civic Democratic Party.[256]
VB Marian Bojko Moravia-Silesia 2017 Originally elected for the Freedom and Direct Democracy.
Lubomír Volný Moravia-Silesia 2017 Originally elected for the Freedom and Direct Democracy.

Aftermath

Analysis

Polling station Česká Lípa

The electoral coalition SPOLU won the most votes but finished with one fewer seat (71) in the Chamber of Deputies than ANO 2011, which won 72 with a lower vote share. ANO had the largest number of deputies of any party, winning twice as many seats as the second place Civic Democratic Party (ODS). The Pirates and Mayors (PirStan) electoral coalition came third with 37 seats. Due to preference voting, Mayors and Independents won 33 seats and the Czech Pirate Party won just 4 seats. Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) came fourth, and were the only other political party or electoral coalition to be elected to the Chamber.[257] The election saw the highest ever number of discarded votes for parties not meeting the 5% threshold in the history of elections in the Czech Republic, with more than 1 million, or about 20%.[258] The Czech Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia failed to win any seats in the lower chamber for the first time since 1990, and the respective party leaders Jan Hamáček and Vojtěch Filip resigned. For the first time since the Third Czechoslovak Republic, a Communist party would not be represented in the national parliament covering the Czech lands.[259]

Political analyst Jiří Pehe of the New York University in Prague hailed the results as a "triumph for liberal democracy" and said they "signalled the end of the post-Communist era."[260] Political analyst Michal Klima told Czech public television that the result meant "an absolute change of the politics in the Czech Republic. It stabilises the country's position in the West camp. It's a huge defeat for [Babiš]."[261]

The media considered the result a surprise and an upset, as polls had shown ANO 2011 as the clear front-runner.[262] Spolu were polling second but the last polls showed a surge in support, though it was still expected that they would lose. Martin Buchtík, Director of the STEM polling agency, said he thought it would be impossible that ANO 2011 would not receive the highest number of votes. Director of Median, Přemysl Čech, said it was unlikely that Spolu would be first. The Director of Kantar, Pavel Ranocha, also said he believed ANO 2011 would be first, but noted that the latest data showed that gap between ANO 2011 and Spolu narrowing. The directors of all three major polling agencies agreed that Pirates and Mayors had no chance of defeating ANO 2011, and also agreed that only ANO 2011, Spolu, Pirates and Mayors and SPD could be certain of winning seats in the Chamber of Deputies, as KSČM, ČSSD and Přísaha were all hovering around the 5% threshold.[1] Spolu's victory in the election, against polling evidence, was attributed to a "last minute swing". Sociologist Jan Herzmann said that large number of voters had changed their mind in the last moments, which could not be detected by opinion polls. He argued that in the last week running up to the election it had become clear that Petr Fiala was an equal opponent to Prime Minister Andrej Babiš, and competition between the two men led voters of smaller parties to switch to Spolu or ANO 2011, leading to disappointing results for Pirates and Mayors and SPD. Ranocha said that undecided voters were still deciding between Spolu or Pirates and Mayors, and Spolu were ahead in the polls. He also said that a large number of voters decided to support Spolu due to the television debates.[5] Journalist Jan Horák of Aktuálně.cz said that Spolu were competing with Pirates and Mayors to be the main opposition option, but opinion polls showed Spolu as the stronger of the two, which won them votes. He also noted that Fiala was more acceptable than Pirate leader Ivan Bartoš. Political scientist Lubomír Kopeček said that inflation and the Pandora Papers affair may have contributed to ANO's defeat.[263]

New Chamber of Deputies has highest representation of women with 50 elected female MPs. PirStan has highest representation of women with 35% of MPs being female. Average age of elected MPs is 50 years with Bohuslav Svoboda at 77 years being oldest MP. Ondřej Babek is the youngest MP as he is 27 years old.[264]

On 12 November 2021, STEM published a poll conducted from 15 October to 25 October 2021. According to the poll, 61% of PirStan supporters were Pirate Party supporters, while 39% supported STAN. However, 58% of STAN supporters used preferential voting, compared to only 29% of Pirate Party supporters, resulting in a large difference in seat distribution between the two parties.[265] According to the poll, 49% of SPOLU voters were supporters of ODS, 26% of TOP 09, and 25% of KDU-ČSL. 47% of KDU-ČSL supporters, 44% of ODS supporters and 35% of TOP 09 supporters used preferential voting.[266]

Complaints

Supreme Administrative Court received record number of complaints.

The Supreme Administrative Court received 210 complaints about election irregularities, three times more than in 2017.[267] Many complaints were directed at Czech Television, stating that its election coverage benefitted some parties. Others attacked the electoral coalitions and the rule of wearing masks at polling stations.[268]

It was reported on 22 October 2021 that the Pirates and Mayors had lodged a complaint stating that the Czech Statistical Bureau misinterpreted the electoral law, resulting in an incorrect allocation of seats. If the complaint is successful, then ANO 2011 will lose one seat to Pirates and Mayors. The deadline to respond to complaints is 11 November 2021.[269] Another complaint that received media attention was made by Zdeněk Černý, who was due to run as a candidate for SPOLU in South Moravia before his candidacy was withdrawn in the last moments before the election. Černý argued his withdrawal was illegal and wanted to invalidate the election of all SPOLU candidates in South Moravia to recount the preferential votes.[270]

On 5 November 2021, the Supreme Administrative Court rejected all complaints, including those made by Pirates and Mayors and by Zdeněk Černý. It stated that Pirates and Mayors had misunderstood the electoral law.[271][270] On 8 December 2021, Pirates and Mayors sent a complaint to Constitutional Court seeking to repeal the decision by the Supreme Administrative Court.[272] On 26 January 2022, the Constitutional Court rejected the complaint for procedural reasons.[273]

Government formation

Leader of SPOLU, Petr Fiala, set to become the next prime minister

Incumbent prime minister Andrej Babiš conceded defeat and accepted the results of the vote on the night of 9 October, saying: "That's life, we understand and accept that." Babiš also accused the opposition of a "smear campaign" during the lead-up to the election.[274] Incumbent president Miloš Zeman had indicated that he would give the prime ministerial mandate to the candidate of the largest party, not the largest coalition. Babiš described ANO's performance as a great result, but said he was not expecting a loss. He congratulated the chairman of SPOLU for becoming the largest coalition, and said that he was open to talks with all parties who were going to enter the new parliament, except for PirStan, which he ruled out. PirStan said they would not join or support an ANO-led government, or a government that included SPD, calling them "parties with a corrupt past" (ANO) or parties "threatening liberal democracy" (SPD).[275]

SPD ruled out joining a coalition government with ANO but indicated that they were open to exploratory talks with ANO about providing direct or indirect support to an ANO-led minority government. SPD leader Tomio Okamura said in a press conference that passing a new law to allow national referendums, including on Czexit and possibly NATO membership, was his condition for supporting Babiš's campaign for a second term in office. Babiš left the door open to possible cooperation with SPD but indicated that this was not his first choice as he rejected a referendum on EU membership. After results showed that a potential ANO–SPD majority was mathematically impossible, Babiš indicated his willingness to form a grand coalition with SPOLU, if he were to be asked first by Zeman. Petr Just, a political scientist at the Metropolitan University Prague, said many in ODS were open to forming a government with ANO, as long as Babiš was not part of the government, while many in ANO preferred an alliance with ODS instead of SPD. SPOLU ruled this scenario out, especially if Babiš continued as prime minister.[276][277][278][279]

After the results, SPOLU and PirStan signed a memorandum to form a coalition government with Petr Fiala as prime minister.[280] Both groups said they would not work with Babiš.[281] Petr Fiala said: "The two democratic coalitions (SPOLU and Pirates and Mayors) have gained a majority and have a chance to form a majority government. We are the change. You are the change."[282] PirStan leader Ivan Bartoš said talks with SPOLU "on the possibilities of forming a new government" would likely begin on 9 October. He hailed the end of the "dominance of Andrej Babiš", and said that "the democratic parties have shown that the era of chaos will probably be behind us."[283]

On 10 October, Zeman was hospitalized, creating uncertainty over how and when the government formation talks would be held.[284][285] On 11 October, a spokesman for the hospital said that Zeman's condition had stabilized, commenting: "The reason for [Zeman's] hospitalization is complications from the illnesses for which he has been receiving treatment."[286] On 15 October, Babis announced that he was prepared to go into opposition and would not accept an offer to try to create a new government, commenting: "We will hand it over to the new coalition and we will be in opposition."[287] On 18 October, Miloš Vystrčil, the President of the Senate of the Czech Republic, announced he had received a letter from the Central Military Hospital declaring Zeman unfit to fulfil his duties as the president, and indicated that he planned to trigger Article 66 of the constitution to remove Zeman from office.[288] In response, the Senate announced their intention to transfer Zeman's constitutional powers to the current prime minister, Andrej Babiš, and the speaker of the Chamber of Deputies. The Speaker is expected to ask Fiala to form a government if Article 66 is triggered.[289]

On 2 November, SPOLU and PirStan agreed on the composition of the new government. SPOLU would have the Prime Minister and 10 ministers, while PirStan would have 6 ministers.[290] Ministries held by SPOLU include Finance, Labour and Social affairs, Defence, Transportation, Health, Agriculture, Justice, Environment, Culture and Science. PirStan would get the minister for the Interior, Industry, Education, Local development, Foreign affairs, Legislature and European Union. The signature of the coalition agreement was set for 8 November.[291]

Constituent meeting on 8 November 2021

Fiala also said that he had been contacted by Zeman's staff on the same day, to say that the President was looking forward to meeting him, and intended to do so once he got transferred from the intensive care unit room to a normal room.[292] On 4 November, Zeman was transferred to a normal room.[293] On 5 November, Zeman confirmed during an interview for Frekvence 1 that he would appoint Fiala the new Prime Minister, and would do everything he could for the new government to be formed as quickly as possible.[294]

Coalition agreement was signed on 8 November 2021

ODS and STAN approved the coalition agreement on 4 November.[295][296] KDU-ČSL and TOP 09 approved the agreement on 5 November.[297] The Czech Pirate Party announced that its members would vote on approving the agreement on 13 and 14 November.[298] The leadership of the Pirate Party approved the agreement on 7 November. As a result, Bartoš signed the agreement along with the leaders of the other parties on 8 November, even though party members were still to vote.[299] The leaders of all five parties signed the coalition agreement on 8 November.[300][301] The new Chamber of Deputies had its constituent meeting the same day. Babiš promised that his cabinet would resign soon afterward to allow a new government to be formed quickly.[302] On 9 November, Zeman asked Fiala to form a government.[303][304] The constituent meeting concluded on 10 November and the government resigned the day after. Zeman accepted the resignation the same day. Zeman's Chancellor Vratislav Mynář stated that Fiala would be appointed in a matter of weeks, after the President had met Fiala and the Ministerial candidates.[305][306]

On 12 November, a referendum began among Pirate Party members over whether to approve the coalition agreement. MP Jakub Michálek, who was expected to become Minister for Legislation, announced that he would not be part of the incoming government to avoid the cumulation of jobs, adding that he believed it could convince more members to vote for the government.[307] The referendum concluded on 15 November. 82% of party members agreed that the party should join the incoming government. Fiala was set to meet President Zeman on 17 November to present his cabinet and proposed government ministers.[308][309]

Presidential approval

Fiala met Zeman on 17 November and presented him with the names of his proposed cabinet. Zeman stated that he would appoint Fiala as the new Prime Minister on 26 November, but expressed his disagreement with one potential minister, reported in Czech media to be Jan Lipavský, the candidate for Minister of Foreign Affairs.[310][311][312] Fiala stated afterwards that he did not intend to make any changes to his cabinet.[313] On 25 November 2021, Zeman tested positive for COVID-19,[314][315] delaying the appointment until 28 November 2021.[316] Zeman said he would meet Fiala's nominations for cabinet positions over the next two weeks.[317] Outgoing Prime Minister Andrej Babiš said he expected the rest of the cabinet to be appointed after 13 December 2021.[318] Following his appointment, Fiala said he believed his government would bring change and improve the lives of people in the Czech Republic, but that the next year would be difficult for many citizens and the Czech Republic itself.[319]

Fiala after his appointment.

Zeman started meeting the ministerial nominees on 29 November 2021, when he met Martin Baxa and Mikuláš Bek.[320] On 7 December 2021, he met Jan Lipavský, reported as the potential minister Zeman did not want to appoint.[321] According to sources cited by Frekvence 1, Zeman told Lipavský to withdraw his nomination.[322] Fiala subsequently declared that if Zeman did not appoint all of his ministers, he would submit a jurisdiction action to the Constitutional Court against Zeman.[323][324] The meetings concluded when Zeman met Vlastimil Válek on 10 December 2021.[325][326] Zeman then stated that he did not intend to appoint Lipavský.[327] Fiala responded that Constitutional Court would decide whether the president could reject a minister nominated by the prime minister, and said he would meet Zeman on 13 December 2021 to discuss the next steps for the appointment of the cabinet.[328]

Fiala met Zeman on 13 December 2021 at Lány Castle. After the meeting, Zeman agreed to appoint all cabinet members, including Lipavský, on 17 December 2021.[329][330] A vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies was scheduled for 12 January 2022.[331][332]

Fiala's cabinet was appointed by Zeman on 17 December 2021. Fiala said that his cabinet had taken over responsibility, noting that "we are not starting in a good situation as there are many overlooked problems. We will start working immediately as there is so much work and we want to do it differently than our predecessors."[332] Zdeněk Nekula was the only minister that was not appointed, as he had tested positive for COVID-19. His appointment as Minister of Agriculture was postponed until January 2022, and Marian Jurečka was temporarily designated to manage the Ministry of Agriculture.[333] Fiala confirmed on 2 January 2022 that Nekula would be appointed on 3 January, and the new cabinet would ask the Chamber of Deputies for confidence on 12 January 2022.[334] Nekula was appointed on 3 January 2022, completing the cabinet.[335]

Fiala's cabinet was presented to the Chamber of Deputies on 12 January 2022 for a confidence vote. The vote did not occur on that day as the pre-vote debate continued for 22 hours.[336] The vote was also delayed by Freedom and Direct Democracy leader Tomio Okamura, who called for a special meeting over the financing of Mayors and Independents, following media reports that the party had accepted gifts from Cyprus.[337][338] The confidence debate session continued in the evening of 13 January 2022.[336] After 23 hours of debate, the cabinet won the confidence vote by 106–87, with 193 MPs present.[339][340]

International response

Slovak President Zuzana Čaputová congratulated the Czech Republic and wished it a successful and conflict-free government formation. Prime Minister Eduard Heger congratulated the country for the high voter turnout and congratulated SPOLU for victory, noting that he hoped Fiala would form a government that would govern well. He described Czechs as Slovakia's "closest friends and brothers."[341] Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán congratulated Fiala on his appointment as Prime Minister, calling the Czech Republic a friend and strategic partner.[342]

The international press identified the result as a sign of the decline of populism in Central Europe. The New York Times noted the surprise defeat for Babiš. The Wall Street Journal suggested that the result might echo in Hungary before the 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election.[343]

See also

References

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